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Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3438-3453; doi:10.3390/toxins6123438

Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, 50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
2
National Reference Center for Microfungi and Mycotoxins in Food Chains, Center of Health, Nutrition and Food in Brno, National Institute of Public Health in Prague, 61242 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department Bioprocess & Microbial Systems, Laboratory Chemical Engineering, INP/ENSA Toulouse, University of Toulouse, UMR 5503 CNRS/INPT/UPS, 31320 Auzeville-Tolosane, France
4
Ecole des mines d'Ales, 6 av de Clavieres, 30100 Ales Cedex, France
5
National Reference Laboratory for Biomarkers of Mycotoxins and Mycotoxins in Food, Institute of Public Health in Usti nad Labem, Regional Branch Hradec Kralove, 50002 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 6 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
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Abstract

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; OTA; black tea; fruit tea; coffee; OTA transfer into beverages ochratoxin A; OTA; black tea; fruit tea; coffee; OTA transfer into beverages
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Malir, F.; Ostry, V.; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A.; Toman, J.; Bazin, I.; Roubal, T. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages. Toxins 2014, 6, 3438-3453.

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