Next Article in Journal
Stereoselective Luche Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Three of Its Acetylated Derivatives at C8
Next Article in Special Issue
Regulating Toxin-Antitoxin Expression: Controlled Detonation of Intracellular Molecular Timebombs
Previous Article in Journal
Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Different Exposure Conditions
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 304-324; doi:10.3390/toxins6010304
Review

Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems

 and *
Received: 2 December 2013; in revised form: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 10 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-Antitoxin System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [324 KB, uploaded 10 January 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic modules usually composed of a toxin and an antitoxin counteracting the activity of the toxic protein. These systems are widely spread in bacterial and archaeal genomes. TA systems have been assigned many functions, ranging from persistence to DNA stabilization or protection against mobile genetic elements. They are classified in five types, depending on the nature and mode of action of the antitoxin. In type I and III, antitoxins are RNAs that either inhibit the synthesis of the toxin or sequester it. In type II, IV and V, antitoxins are proteins that either sequester, counterbalance toxin activity or inhibit toxin synthesis. In addition to these interactions between the antitoxin and toxin components (RNA-RNA, protein-protein, RNA-protein), TA systems interact with a variety of cellular factors, e.g., toxins target essential cellular components, antitoxins are degraded by RNAses or ATP-dependent proteases. Hence, TA systems have the capacity to interact with each other at different levels. In this review, we will discuss the different interactions in which TA systems are involved and their implications in TA system functions and evolution.
Keywords: endoribonuclease; repression; trans-activation; proteolysis endoribonuclease; repression; trans-activation; proteolysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Goeders, N.; Van Melderen, L. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems. Toxins 2014, 6, 304-324.

AMA Style

Goeders N, Van Melderen L. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems. Toxins. 2014; 6(1):304-324.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goeders, Nathalie; Van Melderen, Laurence. 2014. "Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems." Toxins 6, no. 1: 304-324.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert