Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems
Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie Bactérienne, IBMM, Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 12 rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet, Gosselies B-6041, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2013; in revised form: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 10 January 2014
Abstract: Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic modules usually composed of a toxin and an antitoxin counteracting the activity of the toxic protein. These systems are widely spread in bacterial and archaeal genomes. TA systems have been assigned many functions, ranging from persistence to DNA stabilization or protection against mobile genetic elements. They are classified in five types, depending on the nature and mode of action of the antitoxin. In type I and III, antitoxins are RNAs that either inhibit the synthesis of the toxin or sequester it. In type II, IV and V, antitoxins are proteins that either sequester, counterbalance toxin activity or inhibit toxin synthesis. In addition to these interactions between the antitoxin and toxin components (RNA-RNA, protein-protein, RNA-protein), TA systems interact with a variety of cellular factors, e.g., toxins target essential cellular components, antitoxins are degraded by RNAses or ATP-dependent proteases. Hence, TA systems have the capacity to interact with each other at different levels. In this review, we will discuss the different interactions in which TA systems are involved and their implications in TA system functions and evolution.
Keywords: endoribonuclease; repression; trans-activation; proteolysis
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Goeders, N.; Van Melderen, L. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems. Toxins 2014, 6, 304-324.
Goeders N, Van Melderen L. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems. Toxins. 2014; 6(1):304-324.
Goeders, Nathalie; Van Melderen, Laurence. 2014. "Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems." Toxins 6, no. 1: 304-324.