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The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review
INRA, UMR 1319 MICALIS-AgroParisTech, La Minière, Guyancourt 78280, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2013; in revised form: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Abstract: The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains diverse Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal diseases and severe eye infections in humans. They have also been incriminated in a multitude of other severe, and frequently fatal, clinical infections, such as osteomyelitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, liver abscess and meningitis, particularly in immuno-compromised patients and preterm neonates. The pathogenic properties of this organism are mediated by the synergistic effects of a number of virulence products that promote intestinal cell destruction and/or resistance to the host immune system. This review focuses on the pore-forming haemolysins produced by B. cereus: haemolysin I (cereolysin O), haemolysin II, haemolysin III and haemolysin IV (CytK). Haemolysin I belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family whose best known members are listeriolysin O and perfringolysin O, produced by L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens respectively. HlyII and CytK are oligomeric ß-barrel pore-forming toxins related to the α-toxin of S. aureus or the ß-toxin of C. perfringens. The structure of haemolysin III, the least characterized haemolytic toxin from the B. cereus, group has not yet been determined.
Keywords: B. cereus; haemolysins; cereolysin O; haemolysin II; haemolysin III; cytotoxin K; PlcR
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Ramarao, N.; Sanchis, V. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review. Toxins 2013, 5, 1119-1139.
Ramarao N, Sanchis V. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review. Toxins. 2013; 5(6):1119-1139.
Ramarao, Nalini; Sanchis, Vincent. 2013. "The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review." Toxins 5, no. 6: 1119-1139.