Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Reduction of Streptolysin O (SLO) Pore-Forming Activity Enhances Inflammasome Activation
Toxins 2013, 5(6), 1119-1139; doi:10.3390/toxins5061119
Review

The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review

*  and
Received: 28 February 2013; in revised form: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pore-Forming Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [855 KB, uploaded 7 June 2013]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains diverse Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal diseases and severe eye infections in humans. They have also been incriminated in a multitude of other severe, and frequently fatal, clinical infections, such as osteomyelitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, liver abscess and meningitis, particularly in immuno-compromised patients and preterm neonates. The pathogenic properties of this organism are mediated by the synergistic effects of a number of virulence products that promote intestinal cell destruction and/or resistance to the host immune system. This review focuses on the pore-forming haemolysins produced by B. cereus: haemolysin I (cereolysin O), haemolysin II, haemolysin III and haemolysin IV (CytK). Haemolysin I belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family whose best known members are listeriolysin O and perfringolysin O, produced by L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens respectively. HlyII and CytK are oligomeric ß-barrel pore-forming toxins related to the α-toxin of S. aureus or the ß-toxin of C. perfringens. The structure of haemolysin III, the least characterized haemolytic toxin from the B. cereus, group has not yet been determined.
Keywords: B. cereus; haemolysins; cereolysin O; haemolysin II; haemolysin III; cytotoxin K; PlcR B. cereus; haemolysins; cereolysin O; haemolysin II; haemolysin III; cytotoxin K; PlcR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Ramarao, N.; Sanchis, V. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review. Toxins 2013, 5, 1119-1139.

AMA Style

Ramarao N, Sanchis V. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review. Toxins. 2013; 5(6):1119-1139.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramarao, Nalini; Sanchis, Vincent. 2013. "The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review." Toxins 5, no. 6: 1119-1139.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert