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Immunotoxins and Other Conjugates Containing Saporin-S6 for Cancer Therapy
Department of Experimental Pathology, “Alma Mater Studiorum” University of Bologna, via San Giacomo 14, 40126-Bologna, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2011; in revised form: 27 May 2011 / Accepted: 3 June 2011 / Published: 22 June 2011
Abstract: Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a family of plant toxins that permanently damage ribosomes and possibly other cellular substrates, thus causing cell death. RIPs are mostly divided in two types: Type 1 RIPs that are single-chain enzymatic proteins, and type 2 RIPs that consist of an active A chain (similar to a type 1 RIP) linked to a B chain with lectin properties. RIP-containing conjugates have been used in many experimental strategies against cancer cells, often showing great efficacy in clinical trials. Saporin-S6, a type 1 RIP extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds, has been extensively utilized to construct anti-cancer conjugates because of its high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures, resulting in the efficient killing of target cells. This review summarizes saporin-S6-containing conjugates and their application in cancer therapy, considering in-vitro and in-vivo studies both in animal models and in clinical trials. The review is structured on the basis of the targeting of hematological versus solid tumors and on the antigen recognized on the cell surface.
Keywords: saporin-S6; plant toxins; immunotoxins; immunoconjugates; immunotherapy; anti-cancer therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style
Polito, L.; Bortolotti, M.; Pedrazzi, M.; Bolognesi, A. Immunotoxins and Other Conjugates Containing Saporin-S6 for Cancer Therapy. Toxins 2011, 3, 697-720.
Polito L, Bortolotti M, Pedrazzi M, Bolognesi A. Immunotoxins and Other Conjugates Containing Saporin-S6 for Cancer Therapy. Toxins. 2011; 3(6):697-720.
Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Pedrazzi, Manuela; Bolognesi, Andrea. 2011. "Immunotoxins and Other Conjugates Containing Saporin-S6 for Cancer Therapy." Toxins 3, no. 6: 697-720.