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Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation
Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Analytical Technology Laboratory, 1-1-21, Midori, Moriya, Ibaraki, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2010; in revised form: 21 January 2011 / Accepted: 31 January 2011 / Published: 14 February 2011
Abstract: Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL), b-zearalenol (b-ZOL), a-zearalanol (a-ZAL), and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to b-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process.
Keywords: zearalenone; metabolite; beer; fermentation; liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)
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MDPI and ACS Style
Mizutani, K.; Nagatomi, Y.; Mochizuki, N. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation. Toxins 2011, 3, 134-141.
Mizutani K, Nagatomi Y, Mochizuki N. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation. Toxins. 2011; 3(2):134-141.
Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki. 2011. "Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation." Toxins 3, no. 2: 134-141.