Toxins 2010, 2(9), 2258-2271; doi:10.3390/toxins2092258
Review

Development of Treatment Concepts for the Use of Botulinum Toxin A in Children with Cerebral Palsy

1,* email, 2email and 1email
Received: 23 July 2010; in revised form: 24 August 2010 / Accepted: 26 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins as Therapeutics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The treatment of children with cerebral palsy with Botulinum toxin A injections is well established, safe and effective. However, a standardized injection strategy is still missing and the used dosage has escalated over the years. In the recent past, the recommended dosages in Europe were, however, reduced due to a better understanding of the relationship between dosage, severe side effects and the kind of anesthesia used. To combine safety and efficacy, the trend tends to a lower dosage, but combined with a more specific selection of injected muscles. The treatment of these key-muscles takes into account the best support for motor development to attain each individual motor milestone.
Keywords: botulinum toxin A; cerebral palsy; CP; multi-level treatment; key-muscle concept
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MDPI and ACS Style

Placzek, R.; Siebold, D.; Funk, J.F. Development of Treatment Concepts for the Use of Botulinum Toxin A in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Toxins 2010, 2, 2258-2271.

AMA Style

Placzek R, Siebold D, Funk JF. Development of Treatment Concepts for the Use of Botulinum Toxin A in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Toxins. 2010; 2(9):2258-2271.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Placzek, Richard; Siebold, Dagmar; Funk, Julia F. 2010. "Development of Treatment Concepts for the Use of Botulinum Toxin A in Children with Cerebral Palsy." Toxins 2, no. 9: 2258-2271.


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