Next Article in Journal
Low Levels of Chito-Oligosaccharides Are Not Effective in Reducing Deoxynivalenol Toxicity in Swine Jejunal Explants
Previous Article in Journal
Purification and Characterization of Native and Vaccine Candidate Mutant Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Growth and Toxin Production of Gambierdiscus spp. Can Be Regulated by Quorum-Sensing Bacteria
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(7), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070275

Microcystin Content in Phytoplankton and in Small Fish from Eutrophic Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya

1
Research Department for Limnology, University of Innsbruck, Mondseestrasse 9, 5310 Mondsee, Austria
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536, Egerton 20115, Kenya
3
Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 1430 As, Norway
4
Department of Geosciences and the Environment, The Technical University of Kenya, P.O. Box 52428, Nairobi 00200, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Biotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2940 KB, uploaded 4 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

The human health risks posed by exposure to cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystin (MC) through water and fish consumption remain poorly described. During the last two decades, coastal regions of Lake Victoria such as Nyanza Gulf (Kisumu Bay) have shown severe signs of eutrophication with blooms formed by Microcystis producing MC. In this study, the spatial variability in MC concentration in Kisumu Bay was investigated which was mostly caused by Microcystis buoyancy and wind drifting. Small fish (<6 cm) mainly composed of Rastrineobola argentea were examined for MC content by means of biological methods such as ELISA and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA) and partly by chemical-analytical methods such as LC-MS/MS. Overall, the MC content in small fish was related to the MC content observed in the seston. When comparing the MC content in the seston in relation to dry weight with the MC content in small fish the latter was found three orders of magnitude decreased. On average, the ELISA-determined MC contents exceeded the PPIA-determined MC contents by a factor of 8.2 ± 0.5 (SE) while the MC contents as determined by LC-MS/MS were close to the detection limit. Using PPIA, the MC content varied from 25–109 (mean 62 ± 7) ng/g fish dry weight in Kisumu Bay vs. 14 ± 0.8 ng MC/g in the more open water of L. Victoria at Rusinga channel. Drying the fish under the sun showed little effect on MC content, although increased humidity might indirectly favor photocatalyzed MC degradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: eutrophication; Microcystis; spatial variability; cyanotoxins; ELISA; PPIA; food chain; Rastrineobola argentea eutrophication; Microcystis; spatial variability; cyanotoxins; ELISA; PPIA; food chain; Rastrineobola argentea
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Simiyu, B.M.; Oduor, S.O.; Rohrlack, T.; Sitoki, L.; Kurmayer, R. Microcystin Content in Phytoplankton and in Small Fish from Eutrophic Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya. Toxins 2018, 10, 275.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top