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Toxins 2018, 10(5), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10050190

Novel Botulinum Neurotoxins: Exploring Underneath the Iceberg Tip

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy
Present address: Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP), Robert-Rössle-Straße 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany.
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Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel BoNTs and Toxin Engineering)
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Abstract

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the etiological agents of botulism, are the deadliest toxins known to humans. Yet, thanks to their biological and toxicological features, BoNTs have become sophisticated tools to study neuronal physiology and valuable therapeutics for an increasing number of human disorders. BoNTs are produced by multiple bacteria of the genus Clostridium and, on the basis of their different immunological properties, were classified as seven distinct types of toxin. BoNT classification remained stagnant for the last 50 years until, via bioinformatics and high-throughput sequencing techniques, dozens of BoNT variants, novel serotypes as well as BoNT-like toxins within non-clostridial species have been discovered. Here, we discuss how the now “booming field” of botulinum neurotoxin may shed light on their evolutionary origin and open exciting avenues for future therapeutic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxins; botulism; serotypes; subtype; neuromuscular junction botulinum neurotoxins; botulism; serotypes; subtype; neuromuscular junction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tehran, D.A.; Pirazzini, M. Novel Botulinum Neurotoxins: Exploring Underneath the Iceberg Tip. Toxins 2018, 10, 190.

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