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Toxins 2018, 10(2), 78; doi:10.3390/toxins10020078

Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

1
Laboratorio de Biología Funcional y Biotecnología (BIOLAB), UNCPBA-CICBA, INBIOTEC-CONICET, Av. República de Italia 780, Azul, 7300 Buenos Aires, Argentina
2
Área de Toxicología, Departamento de Fisiopatología, Centro de Investigación Veterinaria de Tandil (CIVETAN) CONICET-CICBA, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias-UNCPBA, Campus Universitario, Paraje Arroyo Seco s/n, Tandil, 7000 Buenos Aires, Argentina
3
Estación Experimental Agropecuaria INTA Bordenave, Ruta Provincial 76 Km 36,5, Bordenave, 8187 Buenos Aires, Argentina
4
Área de Microbiología, Facultad de Agronomía de Azul-UNCPBA, Av. República de Italia 780, Azul, 7300 Buenos Aires, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium poae; DON; NIV; barley Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium poae; DON; NIV; barley
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nogueira, M.S.; Decundo, J.; Martinez, M.; Dieguez, S.N.; Moreyra, F.; Moreno, M.V.; Stenglein, S.A. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina. Toxins 2018, 10, 78.

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