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Toxins 2018, 10(2), 70; doi:10.3390/toxins10020070

In Vitro Study of the Cytotoxic, Cytostatic, and Antigenotoxic Profile of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Apocynaceae) Crude Drug Extract on T Lymphoblastic Cells

1
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Corso d’Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Piazzale Luciano Chiappini 3, Malborghetto di Boara, 44123 Ferrara, Italy
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55128 Mainz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Toxins)
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Abstract

In traditional Indian medicine, the crude drug Hemidesmus indicus root—commonly known as Indian sarsaparilla—is used alone or in poly-herbal preparations for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. The present study focuses on the cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of H. indicus extracts on an acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM). With this aim in mind, we subjected H. indicus roots to two subsequent extractions (hydro-alcoholic extraction and soxhlet extraction). As DNA damage is an important prerequisite for the induction of mutations/cancer by genotoxic carcinogens, cancer chemoprevention may be achieved by preventing genotoxicity. Through an integrated experimental approach, we explored the genoprotective potential of the soxhlet H. indicus extract against different mutagenic compounds and its cytotoxic, proapoptotic, and cytostatic properties. In our experimental conditions, H. indicus induced a cytotoxic effect involving the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and blocked the cell cycle in the S phase. Moreover, the antigenotoxicity results showed that the extract was able to mitigate DNA damage, an essential mechanism for its applicability as a chemopreventive agent, via either the modulation of extracellular and intracellular events involved in DNA damage. These data add to the growing body of evidence that H. indicus can represent a noteworthy strategy to target early and late stages of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hemidesmus indicus; cancer cells; apoptosis; cell cycle; genotoxicity; antigenotoxicity Hemidesmus indicus; cancer cells; apoptosis; cell cycle; genotoxicity; antigenotoxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Turrini, E.; Calcabrini, C.; Tacchini, M.; Efferth, T.; Sacchetti, G.; Guerrini, A.; Paganetto, G.; Catanzaro, E.; Greco, G.; Fimognari, C. In Vitro Study of the Cytotoxic, Cytostatic, and Antigenotoxic Profile of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Apocynaceae) Crude Drug Extract on T Lymphoblastic Cells. Toxins 2018, 10, 70.

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