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Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 606; doi:10.3390/nu9060606

Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study

1
FIDEC Foundation, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Gurtubay s/n, 48010 Bilbao, Spain
2
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Centre of Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Campus de la Salud, Avda. del Conocimiento, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
4
CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid 28029, Spain
5
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Martín Fierro 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain
6
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
7
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Paseo Blas Cabrera Felipe “Físico” s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
8
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Crta. Boadilla Km. 5.3, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
9
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), C/General Álvarez de Castro 20. 1a pta, 28010 Madrid, Spain
10
Department of Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract

Limited knowledge is available on lifestyle patterns in Spanish adults. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aged 18–64 years and their association with obesity. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 1617) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and obesity. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, “Traditional DP”, “Mediterranean DP”, “Snack DP” and “Dairy-sweet DP”. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aggregated into three different clusters of lifestyle patterns: “Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern”, “Not poor diet-low physical activity-low sedentary lifestyle pattern” and “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. A higher proportion of people aged 18–30 years was classified into the “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. The prevalence odds ratio for obesity in men in the “Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern” was significantly lower compared to those in the “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. Those behavior patterns are helpful to identify specific issues in population subgroups and inform intervention strategies. The findings in this study underline the importance of designing and implementing interventions that address multiple health risk practices, considering lifestyle patterns and associated determinants. View Full-Text
Keywords: cluster analysis; dietary patterns; lifestyle patterns; physical activity; sedentary behavior; obesity; adults cluster analysis; dietary patterns; lifestyle patterns; physical activity; sedentary behavior; obesity; adults
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Rodrigo, C.; Gianzo-Citores, M.; Gil, Á.; González-Gross, M.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J. Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 606.

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