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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 254; doi:10.3390/nu9030254

Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand

1
Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
2
Fonterra Research & Development Centre, Private Bag 11029, Dairy Farm Road, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract

Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50–70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%–55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine; selenium; postmenopausal women; iodine fortification iodine; selenium; postmenopausal women; iodine fortification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brough, L.; Gunn, C.A.; Weber, J.L.; Coad, J.; Jin, Y.; Thomson, J.S.; Mauze, M.; Kruger, M.C. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand. Nutrients 2017, 9, 254.

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