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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 251; doi:10.3390/nu9030251

Does the Dietary Pattern of Shanghai Residents  Change across Seasons and Area of Residence:  Assessing Dietary Quality Using the Chinese Diet  Balance Index (DBI)

1
Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
2
Department of Vital Statistics, Division of Health information, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
3
Department of Molecular Biology for Public Health, Division of Non‐Communicable Diseases, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
4
Department of Physical Examination, Division of Non‐Communicable Diseases, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200070, China
5
Songjiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 201620, China
6
Pudong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200136, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
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Abstract

Background: Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality across seasons. Method: The Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) included 1680 participants from all districts of Shanghai from 2012 to 2013. Dietary data were obtained using three‐day 24‐h recall in spring, summer, fall, and winter. Higher bound score (HBS), lower bound score (LBS) and diet quality distance (DQD) were calculated according to compliance with the dietary guidelines and based on the recommendations for consumption within the main food groups. HBS, LBS, and DQD represent over‐intake, under‐intake, and overall imbalance of the diet, respectively. Results: 836 males and 844 females were included. The HBS indicated that 10.08%, 11.84%, 10.31%, and 12.73% people have moderate or high levels of over‐intake of food in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively; and 74.04%, 37.61%, 53.09%, and 42.72% people have moderate or high levels of deficit food intake for each of the four seasons. The mean HBS and LBS among the four seasons were statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The mean (SD) DQD was 43.27 (10.21), 35.67 (9.71), 39.19 (9.36), and 36.84 (9.45) in each season. A multivariable model showed statistically significant differences in DQD according to age, gender, occupational status, education, smoking, drinking status, season, and residency (p < 0.001). Conclusion: An unbalanced diet is common among people living in Shanghai. Seasonality and area of residence were found to be two significant predictors. Strengthening the accessibility and the supply of food across seasons and regions should be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: Shanghai Diet and Health Survey; Diet Balance Index; season; predictors Shanghai Diet and Health Survey; Diet Balance Index; season; predictors
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Zang, J.; Yu, H.; Zhu, Z.; Lu, Y.; Liu, C.; Yao, C.; Bai, P.; Guo, C.; Jia, X.; Zou, S.; Wu, F. Does the Dietary Pattern of Shanghai Residents  Change across Seasons and Area of Residence:  Assessing Dietary Quality Using the Chinese Diet  Balance Index (DBI). Nutrients 2017, 9, 251.

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