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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 127; doi:10.3390/nu9020127

Dietary Fatty Acids and Changes in Blood Lipids during Adolescence: The Role of Substituting Nutrient Intakes

1
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Centre for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
2
DONALD Study, IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
3
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, 80337 Munich, Germany
4
Department of Pediatrics, Marien-Hospital Wesel, 46483 Wesel, Germany
5
IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (IUF), 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
6
Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Inner City Clinic, University Hospital of Munich (LMU), 80336 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
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Abstract

The relevance of dietary fatty acids (FA) for blood lipids should be assessed in the context of substituting nutrients. Such evidence is lacking for adolescents. This study describes prospective associations of dietary FA with changes in serum lipids during adolescence, and considers the theoretical isocaloric replacements of saturated FA (SFA) with other FA or carbohydrates (CHO). Children from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, with data on FA intakes (at age 10 years) and serum lipids (at age 10 and 15 years), were included (n = 1398). Associations of SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 PUFA, with changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TAG), and total cholesterol to HDL ratio (TOTAL:HDL), were assessed by linear regression. Substitution models assessed isocaloric replacements of SFA with MUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA or CHO. Higher SFA intakes were associated with decreasing TAG. No associations were observed for fatty acid intakes with LDL, HDL or TOTAL:HDL. In females, replacing SFA with CHO was associated with increasing LDL, TAG and TOTAL:HDL. Our findings confirm observations in adults, although sex-specific determinants seem relevant in our adolescent population. Overlooking the nutrient context when limiting SFA intakes might have detrimental consequences appreciable as early as adolescence. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acids; lipids; isocaloric substitution; diet; carbohydrates; adolescence; epidemiology fatty acids; lipids; isocaloric substitution; diet; carbohydrates; adolescence; epidemiology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Harris, C.; Buyken, A.; Koletzko, S.; von Berg, A.; Berdel, D.; Schikowski, T.; Koletzko, B.; Heinrich, J.; Standl, M. Dietary Fatty Acids and Changes in Blood Lipids during Adolescence: The Role of Substituting Nutrient Intakes. Nutrients 2017, 9, 127.

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