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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 101; doi:10.3390/nu9020101

Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

1
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, 117549, Singapore
2
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (NUS) and National University Health System, 119228, Singapore
3
NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, 117456, Singapore
4
NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 117411, Singapore
5
Duke-NUS Medical School, 169857, Singapore
6
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA
7
Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
8
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
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Abstract

High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n − 6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n − 6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n − 6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n − 3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n − 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n − 3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; polyunsaturated fatty acids; cooking oil; inflammation; cardiovascular disease; plasma fatty acid; omega-6 fatty acid; omega-3 fatty acid; biomarkers diet; polyunsaturated fatty acids; cooking oil; inflammation; cardiovascular disease; plasma fatty acid; omega-6 fatty acid; omega-3 fatty acid; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Seah, J.Y.H.; Gay, G.M.W.; Su, J.; Tai, E.-S.; Yuan, J.-M.; Koh, W.-P.; Ong, C.N.; van Dam, R.M. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 101.

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