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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1350; doi:10.3390/nu9121350

Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji

Pacific Research Centre for the Prevention of Obesity and Noncommunicable Diseases (C-POND), Fiji National University, Nasinu, Suva, Fiji
The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
Independent Nutrition Consultant, Suva, Fiji
Global Obesity Centre, Deakin University, Geelong VIC 3220, Australia
Deakin Health Economics, Centre for Population Health Research, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Burwood VIC 3125, Australia
School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbell town, Sydney 2560, Australia
School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [249 KB, uploaded 12 December 2017]


Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: −1.4 g/day, 95% CI −3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys. View Full-Text
Keywords: population sodium intake; salt reduction; nutrition intervention; Pacific Islands; behavior change; health policy; salt targets; blood pressure; hypertension population sodium intake; salt reduction; nutrition intervention; Pacific Islands; behavior change; health policy; salt targets; blood pressure; hypertension
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pillay, A.; Trieu, K.; Santos, J.A.; Sukhu, A.; Schultz, J.; Wate, J.; Bell, C.; Moodie, M.; Snowdon, W.; Ma, G.; Rogers, K.; Webster, J. Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1350.

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