Next Article in Journal
Development and Validation of the Food Liking Questionnaire in a French-Canadian Population
Previous Article in Journal
Protein Adequacy Is Primarily a Matter of Protein Quantity, Not Quality: Modeling an Increase in Plant:Animal Protein Ratio in French Adults
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1334; doi:10.3390/nu9121334

Prevalence and Effects of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency: The PREVEND Study

1
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6709 PA Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
4
R&D Group, VitaK, Maastricht University, 6229 EV Maastricht, The Netherlands
5
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU Medical Center, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
6
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
7
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
8
Unit of PharmacoEpidemiology & PharmacoEconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [594 KB, uploaded 27 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a strong vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. We assessed the prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency, as derived from plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), and investigated whether plasma dp-ucMGP is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a large general population-based cohort. We included 4275 subjects (aged 53 ± 12 years, 46.0% male) participating in the prospective general population-based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. The prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency (i.e., dp-ucMGP > 500 pmol/L) was 31% in the total study population. This prevalence was significantly higher among elderly and subjects with comorbidities like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease (~50%). After 10 years of follow-up, 279 subjects had died, with 74 deaths attributable to cardiovascular causes. We found significant J-shaped associations of plasma dp-ucMGP with all-cause (linear term: hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.20 (0.12–0.33), p < 0.001; squared term: 1.14 (1.10–1.17), p < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (linear term: 0.12 (0.05–0.27), p < 0.001; squared term: 1.17 (1.11–1.23), p < 0.001). These associations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Whether the correction of vitamin K insufficiency improves health outcomes needs to be addressed in future prospective intervention studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; matrix Gla protein; all-cause mortality; cardiovascular mortality vitamin K; matrix Gla protein; all-cause mortality; cardiovascular mortality
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Riphagen, I.J.; Keyzer, C.A.; Drummen, N.E.A.; de Borst, M.H.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Navis, G.; Visser, S.T.; Vermeer, C.; Kema, I.P.; Bakker, S.J.L. Prevalence and Effects of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency: The PREVEND Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1334.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top