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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1319; doi:10.3390/nu9121319

Relationship between Vitamin Intake and Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Japanese Individuals: Differences with Gender and Body Mass Index

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
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Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
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Abstract

Only a few studies have focused on the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in 1634 elderly Japanese individuals (65 years and older). The consumption of fifteen vitamins including retinol, a retinol equivalent, beta-carotene equivalent, vitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin K, vitamin group B, vitamin C, and cryptoxanthine was analyzed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to assess depressive symptoms. The prevalence of participants with depressive symptoms was 26.7%. The consumption of all vitamins, except for retinol and vitamin D, was lower among depressed than non-depressed participants. The consumption of vitamins was significantly less in female and overweight participants with depressive symptoms than in elderly participants without depressive symptoms. After adjustments for potential confounders, none of the fifteen vitamins were correlated with depressive symptoms in male or underweight participants. Associations between vitamin deficiencies and depressive symptoms were observed in female and overweight elderly participants. Our findings demonstrated a relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; vitamin; elderly individuals; Japanese depression; vitamin; elderly individuals; Japanese
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, T.T.T.; Tsujiguchi, H.; Kambayashi, Y.; Hara, A.; Miyagi, S.; Yamada, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Hori, D.; Suzuki, F.; Hayashi, K.; Nakamura, H. Relationship between Vitamin Intake and Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Japanese Individuals: Differences with Gender and Body Mass Index. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1319.

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