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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 50; doi:10.3390/nu9010050

Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet

1
Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
2
Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
3
Department of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Abstract

Dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling. Biological processes (BPs) related to the immune response, including T-cell receptor signaling pathway, T-cell differentiation and co-stimulation, myeloid dendritic cell differentiation, antigen presentation and processing, and the toll like receptor pathway were downregulated by HFD-ED compared with control and HFD-CO. These findings were supported by the down-regulation of NF-κB in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO fed mice. Lower phospholipid arachidonic acid levels in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO, and control mice suggest attenuation of pathways via prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The HFD-ED also upregulated BPs related to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis compared with control and HFD-CO fed mice. Our findings suggest that EPA and DHA down-regulate the splenic immune response induced by HFD-CO, supporting earlier work that the spleen is a target organ for the anti-inflammatory effects of these n-3 fatty acids. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); spleen transcriptomics; inflammation and immunity; NF-κB; arachidonic acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); spleen transcriptomics; inflammation and immunity; NF-κB; arachidonic acid
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Soni, N.K.; Ross, A.B.; Scheers, N.; Savolainen, O.I.; Nookaew, I.; Gabrielsson, B.G.; Sandberg, A.-S. Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet. Nutrients 2017, 9, 50.

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