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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 49; doi:10.3390/nu9010049

Validation of a Dish-Based Semiquantitative Food Questionnaire in Rural Bangladesh

1
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Research Center of Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
Department of Environmental Research, Dhaka Community Hospital, Dhaka 1217, Bangladesh
5
Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 18 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract

A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using two 3-day food diaries (FDs). We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants) from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation, paired t-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland–Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired t-test, p < 0.05; percent difference <10%), with no presence of proportional bias (Bland–Altman correlation, p > 0.05). After energy-adjustment and de-attenuation for within-person variation, macronutrient intakes had excellent correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.70. Validity for micronutrients was mixed. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were found for most nutrients between the two seasons, except vitamin A. This dish-based FFQ provided adequate validity to assess and rank long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh for most food groups and nutrients, and should be useful for studying dietary-disease relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: food frequency questionnaire; food diary; duplicate food sample; validation study; adult male equivalent; Bangladesh food frequency questionnaire; food diary; duplicate food sample; validation study; adult male equivalent; Bangladesh
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, P.-I.D.; Bromage, S.; Mostofa, M.G.; Allen, J.; Oken, E.; Kile, M.L.; Christiani, D.C. Validation of a Dish-Based Semiquantitative Food Questionnaire in Rural Bangladesh. Nutrients 2017, 9, 49.

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