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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/nu9010002

Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

1
Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
2
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117609, Singapore
3
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
4
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
5
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117549, Singapore
6
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
7
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore 169857, Singapore
8
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit & NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton & University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
9
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
10
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
11
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore 117599, Singapore
12
Khoo Teck Puat-National University Children’s Medical Institute, National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
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Abstract

Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), subscapular skinfold (SS), and triceps skinfold (TS) were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME)) and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1) vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR); (2) seafood-and-noodles (SfN); and (3) pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB). In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD) increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS) at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; dietary patterns; developmental origins of health and diseases; children; adiposity; BMI; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold; fruit; vegetables pregnancy; dietary patterns; developmental origins of health and diseases; children; adiposity; BMI; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold; fruit; vegetables
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, L.-W.; Aris, I.M.; Bernard, J.Y.; Tint, M.-T.; Chia, A.; Colega, M.; Gluckman, P.D.; Shek, L.P.-C.; Saw, S.-M.; Chong, Y.-S.; Yap, F.; Godfrey, K.M.; van Dam, R.M.; Chong, M.F.-F.; Lee, Y.S. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age. Nutrients 2017, 9, 2.

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