Next Article in Journal
Mucosal MicroRNAs Expression Profiles before and after Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Therapy in Adult Patients with Crohn’s Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes
Previous Article in Journal
Reply to B. Meunier’s Letter to the Editor Re: Brewer G. J.; Nutrients 2015, 7, 10053–10064
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Beetroot Juice on Recovery of Muscle Function and Performance between Bouts of Repeated Sprint Exercise
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 518; doi:10.3390/nu8080518

Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

1
Human Performance Laboratory, Appalachian State University, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
2
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA
3
Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, Department of Horticulture Science, North Carolina Research Campus, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
4
Department of Biology, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA
5
Kinesiology Department, Queens University of Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28274, USA
6
Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [627 KB, uploaded 22 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125). Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05), but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function. View Full-Text
Keywords: endurance exercise performance; l-citrulline; l-arginine; total nitrate; ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) endurance exercise performance; l-citrulline; l-arginine; total nitrate; ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shanely, R.A.; Nieman, D.C.; Perkins-Veazie, P.; Henson, D.A.; Meaney, M.P.; Knab, A.M.; Cialdell-Kam, L. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. Nutrients 2016, 8, 518.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top