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Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 414; doi:10.3390/nu8070414

Concord and Niagara Grape Juice and Their Phenolics Modify Intestinal Glucose Transport in a Coupled in Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Human Intestinal Model

1
Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Welch Foods Inc., Concord, MA 01742, USA
3
Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Health)
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Abstract

While the potential of dietary phenolics to mitigate glycemic response has been proposed, the translation of these effects to phenolic rich foods such as 100% grape juice (GJ) remains unclear. Initial in vitro screening of GJ phenolic extracts from American grape varieties (V. labrusca; Niagara and Concord) suggested limited inhibitory capacity for amylase and α-glucosidase (6.2%–11.5% inhibition; p < 0.05). Separately, all GJ extracts (10–100 µM total phenolics) did reduce intestinal trans-epithelial transport of deuterated glucose (d7-glu) and fructose (d7-fru) by Caco-2 monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, with 60 min d7-glu/d7-fru transport reduced 10%–38% by GJ extracts compared to control. To expand on these findings by assessing the ability of 100% GJ to modify starch digestion and glucose transport from a model starch-rich meal, 100% Niagara and Concord GJ samples were combined with a starch rich model meal (1:1 and 1:2 wt:wt) and glucose release and transport were assessed in a coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Digestive release of glucose from the starch model meal was decreased when digested in the presence of GJs (5.9%–15% relative to sugar matched control). Furthermore, transport of d7-glu was reduced 10%–38% by digesta containing bioaccessible phenolics from Concord and Niagara GJ compared to control. These data suggest that phenolics present in 100% GJ may alter absorption of monosaccharides naturally present in 100% GJ and may potentially alter glycemic response if consumed with a starch rich meal. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape juice; anthocyanins; carbohydrate digestion; glucose transport grape juice; anthocyanins; carbohydrate digestion; glucose transport
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moser, S.; Lim, J.; Chegeni, M.; Wightman, J.D.; Hamaker, B.R.; Ferruzzi, M.G. Concord and Niagara Grape Juice and Their Phenolics Modify Intestinal Glucose Transport in a Coupled in Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Human Intestinal Model. Nutrients 2016, 8, 414.

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