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Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 411; doi:10.3390/nu8070411

Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro

1
Department of Pediatrics, Justus Liebig University, Feulgenstrasse 12, Giessen D-35392, Germany
2
Institute of Nutritional Science, Justus Liebig University, Wilhelmstrasse 20, Giessen D-35392, Germany
3
Institute of Medical Microbiology, German Centre for Infection Research, DZIF Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen, Justus Liebig University, Schubertstrasse 81, Giessen D-35392, Germany
4
Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Justus Liebig University, Schubertstrasse 60, Giessen D-35392, Germany
5
Chair of Bioanalytical Sciences and Food Analysis, University of Bayreuth, Frankengut D-95703, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
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Abstract

The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs) on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO)-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min), endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6), as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: grapes and berries; anthocyanins; low-grade inflammation; fermentation; in vitro co-culture model grapes and berries; anthocyanins; low-grade inflammation; fermentation; in vitro co-culture model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kuntz, S.; Kunz, C.; Domann, E.; Würdemann, N.; Unger, F.; Römpp, A.; Rudloff, S. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro. Nutrients 2016, 8, 411.

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