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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 356; doi:10.3390/nu8060356

Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

1
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Bentley 6102, Australia
2
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Subiaco 6008, Australia
3
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong 3125, Australia
4
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
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Abstract

Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years). Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OH)D concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L), adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg) increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001). However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; supplements; 25-hydroxyvitamin D vitamin D; supplements; 25-hydroxyvitamin D
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Black, L.J.; Jacoby, P.; Nowson, C.A.; Daly, R.M.; Lucas, R.M. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations. Nutrients 2016, 8, 356.

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