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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 311; doi:10.3390/nu8050311

The Association of Dietary l-Arginine Intake and Serum Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Adults: A Population-Based Study

1
Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
2
Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
3
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of l-arginine is associated with serum nitrate + nitrite (NOx). In this cross-sectional study, 2771 men and women, who had participated in the third examination of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008), were recruited. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary intake of l-arginine was calculated. To determine any association between dietary l-arginine and serum NOx, linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used. Mean age of participants (39.2% men) was 45.9 ± 15.9 years. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, a significant positive association was observed between l-arginine intake and serum NOx concentrations in the fourth quartile of l-arginine (β = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.14, 9.12, p for trend = 0.001), an association stronger in women. Further analysis, stratified by age, body mass index and hypertension status categories, showed a greater association in middle-aged and older adults (β = 9.12, 95% CI = 3.99, 13.6 and β = 12.1, 95% CI = 6.48, 17.7, respectively). l-arginine intakes were also strongly associated with serum NOx levels in overweight and obese subjects in the upper quartile (β = 10.7, 95% CI = 5.43, 16.0 and β = 11.0, 95% CI = 4.29, 17.5); a greater association was also observed between l-arginine intakes and serum NOx in non-hypertensive (HTN) compared to HTN subjects (β = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.1–3.2 vs. β = 1.25, 95% CI = −1.64–4.15). Dietary l-arginine intakes were associated to serum NOx and this association may be affected by sex, age, body mass index, and hypertension status. View Full-Text
Keywords: l-arginine; nitric oxide; nitrate; nitrite l-arginine; nitric oxide; nitrate; nitrite
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mirmiran, P.; Bahadoran, Z.; Ghasemi, A.; Azizi, F. The Association of Dietary l-Arginine Intake and Serum Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Adults: A Population-Based Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 311.

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