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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 289; doi:10.3390/nu8050289

Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

1
Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide 5001, SA, Australia
2
Food and Nutrition, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, PO Box 10041, Adelaide 5000, SA, Australia
3
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan 2308, NSW, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract

Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; glycaemic; cardiovascular disease risk; weight loss; weight maintenance; obesity type 2 diabetes; glycaemic; cardiovascular disease risk; weight loss; weight maintenance; obesity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Watson, N.; Dyer, K.; Buckley, J.; Brinkworth, G.; Coates, A.; Parfitt, G.; Howe, P.; Noakes, M.; Murphy, K. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2016, 8, 289.

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