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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 245; doi:10.3390/nu8050245

Protective Effect of Proanthocyanidins from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L.) Seed against Visible Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration in Vivo

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2
College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
3
Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China
4
Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition, Wuhan 430062, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 2 May 2016
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Abstract

Dietary proanthocyanidins (PACs) as health-protective agents have become an important area of human nutrition research because of their potent bioactivities. We investigated the retinoprotective effects of PACs from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed against visible light-induced retinal degeneration in vivo. Pigmented rabbits were orally administered sea buckthorn seed PACs (50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for 14 consecutive days of pre-illumination and seven consecutive days of post-illumination. Retinal function was quantified via electroretinography 7 days after light exposure. Retinal damage was evaluated by measuring the thickness of the full-thickness retina and outer nuclear layer 7 days after light exposure. Sea buckthorn seed PACs significantly attenuated the destruction of electroretinograms and maintained the retinal structure. Increased retinal photooxidative damage was expressed by the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, the decrease of total antioxidant capacity level and the increase of malondialdehyde level. Light exposure induced a significant increase of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) and angiogenesis (VEGF) levels in retina. Light exposure upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, sea buckthorn seed PACs ameliorated these changes induced by light exposure. Sea buckthorn seed PACs mediated the protective effect against light-induced retinal degeneration via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: proanthocyanidins; sea buckthorn seed; photoreceptor; RPE cells; retinoprotection; visible light-induced retinal degeneration; pigmented rabbit proanthocyanidins; sea buckthorn seed; photoreceptor; RPE cells; retinoprotection; visible light-induced retinal degeneration; pigmented rabbit
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.; Huo, Y.; Zhou, F.; Wu, W.; Lu, F.; Yang, X.; Guo, X.; Chen, P.; Deng, Q.; Ji, B. Protective Effect of Proanthocyanidins from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L.) Seed against Visible Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration in Vivo. Nutrients 2016, 8, 245.

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