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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 162; doi:10.3390/nu8030162

Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, 469 Wilson Road, G. Malcolm Trout FSHN Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
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Abstract

Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and 30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Serum iron concentration (ng/dL) was significantly higher in normal weight women compared to overweight women (86.2 ± 5.0 vs. 68.9 ± 3.0, p < 0.05). An inverse association was found between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Poor diet quality as measured by HEI-2010 was shown among overweight and obese women. Nutrition education and interventions need to be targeted to those women entering pregnancy as overweight and obese. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet quality; Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010; pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI); nutritional biomarkers; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey diet quality; Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010; pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI); nutritional biomarkers; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shin, D.; Lee, K.W.; Song, W.O. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy. Nutrients 2016, 8, 162.

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