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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 136; doi:10.3390/nu8030136

Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Suzhou 215123, China
2
Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow University, 188 Shizi street, Suzhou 215006, China
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2015 / Revised: 20 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
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Abstract

Functional food-flaxseed and its derivatives (flaxseed oil or lignans) are beneficial for human health, possibly because of their anti-inflammatory effects. C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of inflammation was chosen to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of flaxseed. We searched randomized controlled trials from PubMed and the Cochrane Library in October 2015 and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of flaxseed and its derivatives on CRP. The mean differences (net change) in CRP (mg/L) concentrations were pooled with a random- or a fixed-effects model depending on the results of heterogeneity tests. Overall, flaxseed interventions had no effects on reduction of CRP (p = 0.428). The null effects were consistent in the subgroup analysis with multiple studies and population characteristics. Significant heterogeneity was observed in most of the analyses. Meta-regression identified baseline body mass index (BMI) as a significant source of heterogeneity (P-interaction = 0.032), with a significant reduction in CRP of 0.83 mg/L (95% confidence interval −1.34 to −0.31; p = 0.002) among subjects with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that flaxseed and its derivatives have a beneficial effect on reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP in obese populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: flaxseed; C-reactive protein; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis flaxseed; C-reactive protein; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, G.-Y.; Chen, C.-Y.; Chen, G.-C.; Chen, W.-G.; Pan, A.; Pan, C.-W.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Qin, L.-Q.; Chen, L.-H. Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2016, 8, 136.

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