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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 129; doi:10.3390/nu8030129

Particle Size, Surface Area, and Amorphous Content as Predictors of Solubility and Bioavailability for Five Commercial Sources of Ferric Orthophosphate in Ready-To-Eat Cereal

1
Kellogg Company, W.K. Kellogg Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Battle Creek, 2 Hamblin Avenue, Battle Creek, MI 49015, USA
2
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, 469 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
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Abstract

Ferric orthophosphate (FePO4) has had limited use as an iron fortificant in ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal because of its variable bioavailability, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Even though FePO4 has desirable sensory properties as compared to other affordable iron fortificants, few published studies have well-characterized its physicochemical properties. Semi-crystalline materials such as FePO4 have varying degrees of molecular disorder, referred to as amorphous content, which is hypothesized to be an important factor in bioavailability. The objective of this study was to systematically measure the physicochemical factors of particle size, surface area, amorphous content, and solubility underlying the variation in FePO4 bioavailability. Five commercial FePO4 sources and ferrous sulfate were added to individual batches of RTE cereal. The relative bioavailability value (RBV) of each iron source, determined using the AOAC Rat Hemoglobin Repletion Bioassay, ranged from 51% to 99% (p < 0.05), which is higher than typically reported. Solubility in dilute HCl accurately predicted RBV (R2 = 0.93, p = 0.008). Amorphous content measured by Dynamic Vapor Sorption ranged from 1.7% to 23.8% and was a better determinant of solubility (R2 = 0.91; p = 0.0002) than surface area (R2 = 0.83; p = 0.002) and median particle size (R2 = 0.59; p = 0.12). The results indicate that while solubility of FePO4 is highly predictive of RBV, solubility, in turn, is strongly linked to amorphous content and surface area. This information may prove useful for the production of FePO4 with the desired RBV. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferric orthophosphate; reduced iron; bioavailability; solubility; particle size; surface area; amorphous content; X-ray diffraction; dynamic vapor sorption; physicochemical properties ferric orthophosphate; reduced iron; bioavailability; solubility; particle size; surface area; amorphous content; X-ray diffraction; dynamic vapor sorption; physicochemical properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dickmann, R.S.; Strasburg, G.M.; Romsos, D.R.; Wilson, L.A.; Lai, G.H.; Huang, H. Particle Size, Surface Area, and Amorphous Content as Predictors of Solubility and Bioavailability for Five Commercial Sources of Ferric Orthophosphate in Ready-To-Eat Cereal. Nutrients 2016, 8, 129.

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