Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers
Previous Article in Journal
Low Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Nepalese Infants Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Their Mothers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 811; doi:10.3390/nu8120811

Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

1
Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
2
Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden
4
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
5
Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [714 KB, uploaded 21 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Background and Aim: The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO3 and NO2 on the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A total of 2799 Iranian adults aged ≥20 years, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were included and followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of NO3 and NO2 were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. To identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HTN and CKD across tertile categories of residual energy-adjusted NO3 and NO2 intakes, multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results: Dietary intake of NO3 had no significant association with the risk of HTN or CKD. Compared to the lowest tertile category (median intake < 6.04 mg/day), the highest intake (median intake ≥ 12.7 mg/day) of dietary NO2 was accompanied with a significant reduced risk of HTN, in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33–0.98; p for trend = 0.054). The highest compared to the lowest tertile of dietary NO2 was also accompanied with a reduced risk of CKD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.24–0.89, p for trend = 0.07). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that higher intakes of NO2 might be an independent dietary protective factor against the development of HTN and CKD, which are major risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; nitrate; nitrite; hypertension; chronic kidney disease; glomerular filtration rate diet; nitrate; nitrite; hypertension; chronic kidney disease; glomerular filtration rate
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bahadoran, Z.; Mirmiran, P.; Ghasemi, A.; Carlström, M.; Azizi, F.; Hadaegh, F. Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 811.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top