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Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 805; doi:10.3390/nu8120805

Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Bitter Melon Seed Oil-Corrected Lipid Disorders and Conversion of α-Eleostearic Acid into Rumenic Acid in C57BL/6J Mice

1
Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4
Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, Hualien 973, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
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Abstract

We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα in BMSO-modulated lipid disorders and α-ESA metabolism. C57BL/6J wild (WD) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet containing BMSO (15% soybean oil + 15% BMSO, HB) or not (30% soybean oil, HS) for 5 weeks. The HB diet significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride concentrations and increased acyl-CoA oxidase activity in WD, but not in KO mice. However, regardless of genotype, body fat percentage was lowered along with upregulated protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and tyrosine hydroxylase, as well as signaling pathway of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the white adipose tissue of HB-treated groups compared to HS cohorts. In WD-HB and KO-HB groups, white adipose tissue had autophagy, apoptosis, inflammation, and browning characteristics. Without PPARα, in vivo reduction of α-ESA into rumenic acid was slightly but significantly lowered, along with remarkable reduction of hepatic retinol saturase (RetSat) expression. We concluded that BMSO-mediated anti-steatosis depended on PPARα, whereas the anti-adiposity effect was PPARα-independent. In addition, PPARα-dependent enzymes may participate in α-ESA conversion, but only have a minor role. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPARα; bitter melon seed oil; hepatic steatosis; obesity; α-eleostearic acid PPARα; bitter melon seed oil; hepatic steatosis; obesity; α-eleostearic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, Y.-Y.; Su, H.-M.; Chen, S.-H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Chyuan, J.-H.; Chao, P.-M. Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Bitter Melon Seed Oil-Corrected Lipid Disorders and Conversion of α-Eleostearic Acid into Rumenic Acid in C57BL/6J Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 805.

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