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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 671; doi:10.3390/nu8110671

“A Vegetarian vs. Conventional Hypocaloric Diet: The Effect on Physical Fitness in Response to Aerobic Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” A Parallel Randomized Study

1
Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Videnska 1958/9, 14021 Prague, Czech Republic
2
General University Hospital, 3rd Internal Clinic of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 12808 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Institute of Endocrinology, Narodni 8, 11394 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

It has been shown that it is possible to modify macronutrient oxidation, physical fitness and resting energy expenditure (REE) by changes in diet composition. Furthermore, mitochondrial oxidation can be significantly increased by a diet with a low glycemic index. The purpose of our trial was to compare the effects of a vegetarian (V) and conventional diet (C) with the same caloric restriction (−500 kcal/day) on physical fitness and REE after 12 weeks of diet plus aerobic exercise in 74 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). An open, parallel, randomized study design was used. All meals were provided for the whole study duration. An individualized exercise program was prescribed to the participants and was conducted under supervision. Physical fitness was measured by spiroergometry and indirect calorimetry was performed at the start and after 12 weeks Repeated-measures ANOVA (Analysis of variance) models with between-subject (group) and within-subject (time) factors and interactions were used for evaluation of the relationships between continuous variables and factors. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) increased by 12% in vegetarian group (V) (F = 13.1, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.171), whereas no significant change was observed in C (F = 0.7, p = 0.667; group × time F = 9.3, p = 0.004, partial η2 = 0.209). Maximal performance (Watt max) increased by 21% in V (F = 8.3, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.192), whereas it did not change in C (F = 1.0, p = 0.334; group × time F = 4.2, p = 0.048, partial η2 = 0.116). Our results indicate that V leads more effectively to improvement in physical fitness than C after aerobic exercise program. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin sensitivity; maximal oxygen consumption; maximal performance; physical fitness; type 2 diabetes; vegetarian diet insulin sensitivity; maximal oxygen consumption; maximal performance; physical fitness; type 2 diabetes; vegetarian diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veleba, J.; Matoulek, M.; Hill, M.; Pelikanova, T.; Kahleova, H. “A Vegetarian vs. Conventional Hypocaloric Diet: The Effect on Physical Fitness in Response to Aerobic Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” A Parallel Randomized Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 671.

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