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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 651; doi:10.3390/nu8110651

Fluid Intake of Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Survey with a Seven-Day Fluid Specific Record

1
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Airlangga, Surabaya 60112, Indonesia
5
Hydration & Health Department, Danone Research, Palaiseau 91767, France
6
R&D AQUA Group, Jakarta 12950, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract

During pregnancy and lactation, the adequate intake (AI) for total water intake is increased. This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess Total Fluid Intake (TFI; sum of drinking water and all other fluids) of 300 pregnant and 300 breastfeeding women in Indonesia. A seven-day fluid specific record was used to assess TFI. Mean TFI of pregnant and breastfeeding women were 2332 ± 746 mL/day and 2525 ± 843 mL/day, respectively. No significant difference in TFI between pregnancy trimesters was observed, while TFI of women breastfeeding for 12–24 months postpartum (2427 ± 955 mL/day) was lower than that of the two other groups (0–5 months: 2607 ± 754 mL/day; 6–11 months: 2538 ± 807 mL/day, respectively). Forty-two and 54% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects, respectively, did not reach the AI of water from fluids. These AI were actually known by only 14% and 23% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects. However, having the knowledge about the AI did not increase the odds of reaching the AI. Concluding that a high proportion of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects did not reach the AI of water from fluid, it seems pertinent to further assess the fluid intake, as well as their hydration status, in other countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid intake; pregnant; breastfeeding; hydration; Indonesia; seven-day fluid record fluid intake; pregnant; breastfeeding; hydration; Indonesia; seven-day fluid record
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bardosono, S.; Prasmusinto, D.; Hadiati, D.R.; Purwaka, B.T.; Morin, C.; Pohan, R.; Sunardi, D.; Chandra, D.N.; Guelinckx, I. Fluid Intake of Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Survey with a Seven-Day Fluid Specific Record. Nutrients 2016, 8, 651.

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