Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread
Previous Article in Journal
Research Priorities for Fertility and Conception Research as Identified by Multidisciplinary Health Care Practitioners and Researchers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 40; doi:10.3390/nu8010040

Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)

1
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, P.O. Box 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
2
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [230 KB, uploaded 13 January 2016]

Abstract

There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; proximal colon; whole-grain; bread; cohort; prospective; women; Norway colorectal cancer; proximal colon; whole-grain; bread; cohort; prospective; women; Norway
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bakken, T.; Braaten, T.; Olsen, A.; Kyrø, C.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study). Nutrients 2016, 8, 40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top