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Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 40; doi:10.3390/nu8010040

Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)

Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, P.O. Box 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [230 KB, uploaded 13 January 2016]


There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; proximal colon; whole-grain; bread; cohort; prospective; women; Norway colorectal cancer; proximal colon; whole-grain; bread; cohort; prospective; women; Norway
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bakken, T.; Braaten, T.; Olsen, A.; Kyrø, C.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study). Nutrients 2016, 8, 40.

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