Next Article in Journal
Changes in Expression of Genes Regulating Airway Inflammation Following a High-Fat Mixed Meal in Asthmatics
Previous Article in Journal
Quercetin Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Mitochondrial Damage through Enhanced Mitophagy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 29; doi:10.3390/nu8010029

Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Fortified Rice on Hemoglobin, Iron and Vitamin A Status of Cambodian Schoolchildren: a Double-Blind Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier 34394, France
2
Department of Fisheries Post-Harvest Technologies and Quality Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Phnom Penh 12301, Cambodia
3
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark
4
United Nations World Food Programme, Phnom Penh 12301, Cambodia
5
PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health), Seattle, WA 98121, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [556 KB, uploaded 7 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron and vitamin A (VA) status of Cambodian schoolchildren. The FORISCA-UltraRice+NutriRice study was a double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen schools participating in WFP-SMP were randomly assigned to receive extrusion-fortified rice (UltraRice Original, UltraRice New (URN), or NutriRice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old) participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency were 15.6%, 1.4%, 51.0%, 7.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. The strongest risk factors for anemia were hemoglobinopathy, VA deficiency, and depleted iron stores (all p < 0.01). After six months, children receiving NutriRice and URN had 4 and 5 times less risk of low VA status, respectively, in comparison to the placebo group. Hemoglobin significantly increased (+0.8 g/L) after three months for the URN group in comparison to the placebo group; however, this difference was no longer significant after six months, except for children without inflammation. MMFR containing VA effectively improved the VA status of schoolchildren. The impact on hemoglobin and iron status was limited, partly by sub-clinical inflammation. MMFR combined with non-nutritional approaches addressing anemia and inflammation should be further investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: micronutrient deficiencies; Cambodia; malnutrition; rice fortification; iron; vitamin A; anemia; schoolchildren; micronutrient status; nutrition intervention micronutrient deficiencies; Cambodia; malnutrition; rice fortification; iron; vitamin A; anemia; schoolchildren; micronutrient status; nutrition intervention
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Perignon, M.; Fiorentino, M.; Kuong, K.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Burja, K.; Parker, M.; Chamnan, C.; Berger, J.; Wieringa, F.T. Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Fortified Rice on Hemoglobin, Iron and Vitamin A Status of Cambodian Schoolchildren: a Double-Blind Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2016, 8, 29.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top