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Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 21; doi:10.3390/nu8010021

Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

1
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
5
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
6
Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
7
Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1284 KB, uploaded 6 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: fMRI; food reward; overweight; appetite regulation; dietary protein; dietary fiber fMRI; food reward; overweight; appetite regulation; dietary protein; dietary fiber
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sayer, R.D.; Amankwaah, A.F.; Tamer, G.G.; Chen, N.; Wright, A.J.; Tregellas, J.R.; Cornier, M.-A.; Kareken, D.A.; Talavage, T.M.; McCrory, M.A.; Campbell, W.W. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults. Nutrients 2016, 8, 21.

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