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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7781-7797; doi:10.3390/nu7095364

Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, Wageningen 6700 AA, The Netherlands
2
Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands
3
Section of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22700, Amsterdam 1100 DD, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
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Abstract

Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) μg/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin B-12 intake; serum vitamin B-12; dairy; milk; yoghurt; cheese; meat; fish and shellfish; eggs vitamin B-12 intake; serum vitamin B-12; dairy; milk; yoghurt; cheese; meat; fish and shellfish; eggs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; Zwaluw, N.L.; Velde, N.; de Groot, L.C.P.G.M. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7781-7797.

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