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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7651-7675; doi:10.3390/nu7095356

Effects of Olive Oil on Markers of Inflammation and Endothelial Function—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Athanstraße 14 (UZAII), Vienna A-1090, Austria
2
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract

The aim of the present systematic review was to synthesize data from randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of olive oil on markers of inflammation or endothelial function. Literature search in electronic databases Cochrane Trial Register, EMBASE, and MEDLINE was performed. Thirty studies enrolling 3106 participants fulfilled the selection criteria. Pooled effects of different interventions were assessed as mean difference using a random effects model. Olive oil interventions (with daily consumption ranging approximately between 1 mg and 50 mg) resulted in a significantly more pronounced decrease in C-reactive protein (mean difference: −0.64 mg/L, (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.96 to −0.31), p < 0.0001, n = 15 trials) and interleukin-6 (mean difference: −0.29 (95% CI −0.7 to −0.02), p < 0.04, n = 7 trials) as compared to controls, respectively. Values of flow-mediated dilatation (given as absolute percentage) were significantly more increased in individuals subjected to olive oil interventions (mean difference: 0.76% (95% CI 0.27 to 1.24), p < 0.002, n = 8 trials). These results provide evidence that olive oil might exert beneficial effects on endothelial function as well as markers of inflammation and endothelial function, thus representing a key ingredient contributing to the cardiovascular-protective effects of a Mediterranean diet. However, due to the heterogeneous study designs (e.g., olive oil given as a supplement or as part of dietary pattern, variations in control diets), a conservative interpretation of the results is necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; C-reactive protein; flow-mediated dilatation; interleukin-6; Mediterranean diet cardiovascular disease; C-reactive protein; flow-mediated dilatation; interleukin-6; Mediterranean diet
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwingshackl, L.; Christoph, M.; Hoffmann, G. Effects of Olive Oil on Markers of Inflammation and Endothelial Function—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7651-7675.

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