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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7523-7542; doi:10.3390/nu7095351

Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

1
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054 New Zealand
2
Nutrition Society of New Zealand, Whanganui 4543, New Zealand
3
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, 14 Medical Drive, #07-02, Singapore 117599, Singapore
4
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
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Abstract

Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.045) were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: nut intake; population survey; cardiometabolic risk factors nut intake; population survey; cardiometabolic risk factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, R.C.; Tey, S.L.; Gray, A.R.; Chisholm, A.; Smith, C.; Fleming, E.; Parnell, W. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7523-7542.

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