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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7126-7142; doi:10.3390/nu7095327

Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

1
School of Medicine and Statistical Consulting Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
2
Statistical Consulting Services, National Institute of Applied Statistics Research Australia, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
3
School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
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Abstract

Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: older people; body composition; physical function; upper body strength; lean body mass; protein older people; body composition; physical function; upper body strength; lean body mass; protein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Charlton, K.; Batterham, M.; Langford, K.; Lateo, J.; Brock, E.; Walton, K.; Lyons-Wall, P.; Eisenhauer, K.; Green, N.; McLean, C. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7126-7142.

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