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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7749-7763; doi:10.3390/nu7095363

Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
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Abstract

Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; cardiovascular disease; meta-analysis; milk; mortality cancer; cardiovascular disease; meta-analysis; milk; mortality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Larsson, S.C.; Crippa, A.; Orsini, N.; Wolk, A.; Michaëlsson, K. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7749-7763.

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