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Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6567-6581; doi:10.3390/nu7085299

Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

1
State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources (North China Electric Power University), Baoding 071003, Hebei, China
1
Anti-stress and Health Center, Pharmacy College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2
Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China
3
Guangdong Research Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine Manufacturing Technology, Guangzhou 510095, Guangdong, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
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Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg) on embryo development day (EDD) 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg) were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: proanthocyanidins; hyperglycemia; eye malformation; oxidative stress; Pax6; chick embryo proanthocyanidins; hyperglycemia; eye malformation; oxidative stress; Pax6; chick embryo
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tan, R.-R.; Zhang, S.-J.; Li, Y.-F.; Tsoi, B.; Huang, W.-S.; Yao, N.; Hong, M.; Zhai, Y.-J.; Mao, Z.-F.; Tang, L.-P.; Kurihara, H.; Wang, Q.; He, R.-R. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6567-6581.

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