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Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6520-6528; doi:10.3390/nu7085294

Effects of a Low Dose of Fish Oil on Inflammatory Markers of Brazilian HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial

1
School of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, 13484-350, Brazil
2
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 01246-904, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Immunology, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, 13036-225, Brazil
4
University College London, London WC1H 0EG, UK
Deceased.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 25 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
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Abstract

Background: The benefits of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected subjects have been limited by an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a low dose of marine omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory marker concentrations in HIV-infected subjects under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: This was a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the effects of 3 g fish oil/day (540 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid—EPA plus 360 mg of docosahexaenoic acid—DHA) or 3 g soy oil/day (placebo) for 24 weeks in 83 male and non-pregnant female HIV-infected adults on ART. Results: There were no differences between groups for the measures at baseline. Multilevel analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship between the longitudinal changes in high sensitivity-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (Wald Chi2 = 0.17, p = 0.918), fibrinogen (Wald Chi2 = 3.82, p = 0.148), and factor VIII (Wald Chi2 = 5.25, p = 0.073) with fish oil. No significant changes in interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-1 beta (IL1-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) serum concentrations were observed with fish oil supplements for 12 weeks. Conclusions: Compared to placebo, a low dose of 900 mg omega-3 fatty acids (EPA plus DHA) in fish oil capsules did not change hs-CRP, fibrinogen, factor VIII, IL6, IL1-beta and TNF-alpha serum concentrations in HIV-infected subjects on ART. Further investigations should consider the assessment of more sensitive inflammatory markers or higher doses to evaluate the effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Registered at the Nederlands Trial Register, Identifier no. NTR1798. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV infection; AIDS; metabolic syndrome; inflammation; C reactive protein; fibrinogen; factor VIII; interleukin 6; interleukin 1-beta; tumor necrosis factor-alpha HIV infection; AIDS; metabolic syndrome; inflammation; C reactive protein; fibrinogen; factor VIII; interleukin 6; interleukin 1-beta; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, J.M.; Rondó, P.H.C.; Lima, L.R.A.V.; Fortuna, E.S.; Yudkin, J.S. Effects of a Low Dose of Fish Oil on Inflammatory Markers of Brazilian HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6520-6528.

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