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Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6281-6293; doi:10.3390/nu7085285

The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

1
MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK
2
Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
3
Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK
4
NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
5
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 3 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [354 KB, uploaded 3 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. View Full-Text
Keywords: EPA and DHA supplementation; n-3 fatty acid; n-6 fatty acid; fatty acid displacement; plasma fatty acid fractions; blood cell fatty acids EPA and DHA supplementation; n-3 fatty acid; n-6 fatty acid; fatty acid displacement; plasma fatty acid fractions; blood cell fatty acids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Walker, C.G.; West, A.L.; Browning, L.M.; Madden, J.; Gambell, J.M.; Jebb, S.A.; Calder, P.C. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6281-6293.

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