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Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5905-5915; doi:10.3390/nu7075260

Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, 171/173 Wolczanska St., 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2
Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research PAS, 10 Tuwima St., 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Institute of Chemical Technology of Food, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, 4/10 Stefanowskiego St. 90-924 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
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Abstract

An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the b-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. View Full-Text
Keywords: beetroot juice; lactic acid fermentation; Lactobacillus; antioxidant status beetroot juice; lactic acid fermentation; Lactobacillus; antioxidant status
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klewicka, E.; Zduńczyk, Z.; Juśkiewicz, J.; Klewicki, R. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats. Nutrients 2015, 7, 5905-5915.

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