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Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5664-5683; doi:10.3390/nu7075244

Optimal Dietary and Plasma Magnesium Statuses Depend on Dietary Quality for a Reduction in the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults

1
Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, 161 Minchuan East Road, Section 6, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
2
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, No 35, Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan
3
School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, 161 Minchuan East Road, Section 6, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
4
Monash Asia Institute, Monash University, 5th Floor, H Building, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, Melbourne, Victoria 3145, Australia
5
Institute of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, 200, Section 7, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City 43301, Taiwan
6
Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, HungKuang University, 1018, Section 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City 43302, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
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Abstract

The association between dietary or plasma magnesium (Mg) with diabetes incidence and with mortality in free-living elderly was investigated. A total of 1400 participants from the Taiwanese Nutrition Survey, aged ≥ 65 years, and diabetes-free from the 1999–2000 were assessed. The dietary intake and plasma Mg concentration were obtained through 24h dietary recall and health examination at baseline. Participants were classified by quartiles (Q) of dietary Mg or by the plasma Mg normal range (0.75–0.95 mmol/L). Dietary diversity score (DDS, range 1–6) represented the dietary quality. During 8 and 10 years, 231 incident diabetes cases and 475 deaths were identified. Cox’s proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between Mg and health outcomes. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for death in Q2 and Q3 of Mg intakes with DDS > 4 were 0.57 (0.44–0.74) and 0.59 (0.39–0.88), respectively, compared with the lowest intake and DDS ≤ 4 participants. Participants with normal and high plasma Mg in conjunction with high DDS had relative risks of 0.58 (0.37–0.89) and 0.46 (0.25–0.85) in mortality compared with low plasma Mg and lower DDS. Optimal dietary Mg intake and plasma Mg depend on dietary quality to reduce the mortality risk in older adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: plasma magnesium; mortality; stroke; elderly; Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) plasma magnesium; mortality; stroke; elderly; Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, Y.-C.; Wahlqvist, M.L.; Kao, M.-D.; Wang, J.-L.; Lee, M.-S. Optimal Dietary and Plasma Magnesium Statuses Depend on Dietary Quality for a Reduction in the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults. Nutrients 2015, 7, 5664-5683.

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