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Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4416-4425; doi:10.3390/nu7064416

Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Lipoprotein Metabolism: A Comprehensive Update

1
Metabolic Research Centre, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, 6000, Western Australia, Australia
2
Lipid Disorders Clinic, Cardiometabolic Service, Department of Internal Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, 6000, Western Australia, Australia
3
Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics, University of Western Australia, Perth, 6000, Western Australia, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [119 KB, uploaded 2 June 2015]

Abstract

Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary fatty-acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty-acids on human lipoprotein metabolism. In elderly participants with hyperlipidemia, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA) consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion and enhanced TRL to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by up-regulating VLDL lipolysis and uptake. In a study of healthy subjects, the intake of saturated fatty-acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia. Low medium-chain triglyceride may not appreciably alter TRL metabolism. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty-acids increased TRL catabolism. Trans-fatty-acid decreased LDL and enhanced high-density lipoprotein catabolism. Interactions between APOE genotype and n-3 PUFA in regulating lipid responses were also described. The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty-acids on lipoprotein metabolism has centered on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge emphasizes the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potentially CVD risk. Additional studies are required to better characterize the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty-acids. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipoprotein metabolism; dietary fatty acids; cardiovascular disease; dyslipidemia lipoprotein metabolism; dietary fatty acids; cardiovascular disease; dyslipidemia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ooi, E.M.; Watts, G.F.; Ng, T.W.; Barrett, P.H.R. Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Lipoprotein Metabolism: A Comprehensive Update. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4416-4425.

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