Next Article in Journal
Changes in the Sodium Content of New Zealand Processed Foods: 2003–2013
Previous Article in Journal
Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4033-4053; doi:10.3390/nu7064033

Glycemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomized Control Trial in Healthy Humans

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology "Jose Mataix", University of Granada, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, 18100 Armilla (Granada), Spain
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology "Jose Mataix", University of Granada, Campus Universitario de Cartuja C.P., 18071 Granada (Granada), Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [777 KB, uploaded 27 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulinemic index (InI), appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-flour, Alfacar whites and Wholemeal. All breads portions were calculated to supply 50 g of available carbohydrates. In addition, 50 g of glucose was used as a reference. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare data calculated for all breads with glucose load. The GI value varied from 61 for the Wholemeal, to Alfacar 68, Ordinary 76, and 78 and 86 for the Precooked-Frozen and Candeal-flour breads, respectively. Wholemeal and Alfacar had lower GI than glucose. All tested breads had a lower GL (ranged 9 to 18) compared with glucose. Wholemeal GL was similar to Alfacar, but lower than the other white breads. InI were significantly lower for all breads (ranged 68 to 73) compared with glucose, and similar among them. The intake of the Wholemeal bread led to a higher release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide compared with the Ordinary and Precooked breads and to a higher release of pancreatic polypeptide compared with the Precooked-Frozen bread. All breads affected appetite ratings similarly. In conclusion, based on GL, the Wholemeal bread would be expected to exert a favorable glycemic response. View Full-Text
Keywords: appetite ratings; bread; dietary fiber; gastrointestinal hormones; glycemic index; glycemic load; insulinogenic index appetite ratings; bread; dietary fiber; gastrointestinal hormones; glycemic index; glycemic load; insulinogenic index
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gonzalez-Anton, C.; Rico, M.C.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Ruiz-Lopez, M.D.; Gil, A.; Mesa, M.D. Glycemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomized Control Trial in Healthy Humans. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4033-4053.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top